Search Results: atmospheric physics

The shallow water equation and the vorticity equation for a change in height of the topography

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0178184
We consider the shallow water equation and the vorticity equations for a variable height of topography. On the assumptions that the atmosphere is incompressible and a constant density, we simplify the coupled dynamic equations. The change in topographic height is handled as the sum of the inherent and changing topography using the perturbation method, together with appropriate boundary conditions of the atmosphere, to obtain the relationship between the relative height of the flow, th...

Winter to winter recurrence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia and its impact on winter surface air temperature anomalies

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171641
The persistence of atmospheric circulation anomalies over East Asia shows a winter to winter recurrence (WTWR) phenomenon. Seasonal variations in sea level pressure anomalies and surface wind anomalies display significantly different characteristics between WTWR and non-WTWR years. The WTWR years are characterized by the recurrence of both a strong (weak) anomalous Siberian High and an East Asian winter monsoon over two successive winters without persistence through the intervening su...

Internal Variability-Generated Uncertainty in East Asian Climate Projections Estimated with 40 CCSM3 Ensembles

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0149968
Regional climate projections are challenging because of large uncertainty particularly stemming from unpredictable, internal variability of the climate system. Here, we examine the internal variability-induced uncertainty in precipitation and surface air temperature (SAT) trends during 2005–2055 over East Asia based on 40 member ensemble projections of the Community Climate System Model Version 3 (CCSM3). The model ensembles are generated from a suite of different atmospheric initia...

Modeling and Mapping of Atmospheric Mercury Deposition in Adirondack Park, New York

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059322
The Adirondacks of New York State, USA is a region that is sensitive to atmospheric mercury (Hg) deposition. In this study, we estimated atmospheric Hg deposition to the Adirondacks using a new scheme that combined numerical modeling and limited experimental data. The majority of the land cover in the Adirondacks is forested with 47% of the total area deciduous, 20% coniferous and 10% mixed. We used litterfall plus throughfall deposition as the total atmospheric Hg deposition ...

Atmospheric Reaction Systems as Null-Models to Identify Structural Traces of Evolution in Metabolism

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0019759
The metabolism is the motor behind the biological complexity of an organism. One problem of characterizing its large-scale structure is that it is hard to know what to compare it to. All chemical reaction systems are shaped by the same physics that gives molecules their stability and affinity to react. These fundamental factors cannot be captured by standard null-models based on randomization. The unique property of organismal metabolism is that it is controlled, to some exten...

Enhanced Methane Emissions during Amazonian Drought by Biomass Burning

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166039
The Amazon is a significant source of atmospheric methane, but little is known about the source response to increasing drought severity and frequency. We investigated satellite observations of atmospheric column-averaged methane for the 2010 drought and subsequent 2011 wet year in the Amazon using an atmospheric inversion scheme. Our analysis indicates an increase in atmospheric methane over the southern Amazon region during the drought, representing an increase in annual emissions re...

Interaction of Atmospheric-Pressure Air Microplasmas with Amino Acids as Fundamental Processes in Aqueous Solution

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0155584
Plasma medicine is a relatively new field that investigates potential applications of cold atmospheric-pressure plasmas in bioengineering, such as for bacterial inactivation and degradation of organic molecules in water. In order to enunciate mechanisms of bacterial inactivation at molecular or atomic levels, we investigated the interaction of atmospheric-pressure air microplasmas with amino acids in aqueous solution by using high-resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). Results show that...

Detection of a sudden change of the field time series based on the Lorenz system

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0170720
We conducted an exploratory study of the detection of a sudden change of the field time series based on the numerical solution of the Lorenz system. First, the time when the Lorenz path jumped between the regions on the left and right of the equilibrium point of the Lorenz system was quantitatively marked and the sudden change time of the Lorenz system was obtained. Second, the numerical solution of the Lorenz system was regarded as a vector; thus, this solution could be considered as...

Land Surface Reflectance Retrieval from Hyperspectral Data Collected by an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle over the Baotou Test Site

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066972
To evaluate the in-flight performance of a new hyperspectral sensor onboard an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV-HYPER), a comprehensive field campaign was conducted over the Baotou test site in China on 3 September 2011. Several portable reference reflectance targets were deployed across the test site. The radiometric performance of the UAV-HYPER sensor was assessed in terms of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the calibration accuracy. The SNR of the different bands of the UAV-HYPER sensor...

Heterogeneous Ice Nucleation by Soufriere Hills Volcanic Ash Immersed in Water Droplets

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169720
Fine particles of ash emitted during volcanic eruptions may sporadically influence cloud properties on a regional or global scale as well as influencing the dynamics of volcanic clouds and the subsequent dispersion of volcanic aerosol and gases. It has been shown that volcanic ash can trigger ice nucleation, but ash from relatively few volcanoes has been studied for its ice nucleating ability. In this study we quantify the efficiency with which ash from the Soufriere Hills volcano on ...

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