Search Results: bacteriology

Estimation of Sensitivity and Specificity of Bacteriology, Histopathology and PCR for the Confirmatory Diagnosis of Bovine Tuberculosis Using Latent Class Analysis

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0090334
Bacteriology and histopathology are the most commonly used tests used for official confirmatory diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in cattle in most countries. PCR is also being used increasingly because it allows a fast diagnosis. This test could be applied as a supplement to or replacement for current bTB confirmatory diagnostic tests but its characteristics have first to be evaluated. The aim of this study was to estimate and compare sensitivities and specificities of bacteriol...

Correction: Microbes Bind Complement Inhibitor Factor H via a Common Site

dx.plos.org/10.1371/annotation/41169409-3260-4295-baf4-a1a4621a8e48

Diagnosis of Tuberculosis in the Wild Boar (Sus scrofa): A Comparison of Methods Applicable to Hunter-Harvested Animals

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012663
Background: To obtain robust epidemiological information regarding tuberculosis (TB) in wildlife species, appropriate diagnostic methods need to be used. Wild boar (Sus scrofa) recently emerged as a major maintenance host for TB in some European countries. Nevertheless, no data is available to evaluate TB post-mortem diagnostic methods in hunter-harvested wild boar. Methodology/Principal Findings: Six different diagnostic methods for TB were evaluated in parallel in 167 hunter-harveste...

Prevalence and Risk Factors for Adult Pulmonary Tuberculosis in a Metropolitan City of South India

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0124260
Background: The present study measured the community prevalence and risk factors of adult pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in Chennai city, and also studied geographical distribution and the presence of different M. tuberculosis strains in the survey area. Methods: A community-based cross sectional survey was carried out from July 2010 to October 2012 in Chennai city. Prevalence of bacteriologically positive PTB was estimated by direct standardization method. Univariate and multivariate an...

Increased Case Notification through Active Case Finding of Tuberculosis among Household and Neighbourhood Contacts in Cambodia

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150405
Background: Globally, there has been growing evidence that suggests the effectiveness of active case finding (ACF) for tuberculosis (TB) in high-risk populations. However, the evidence is still insufficient as to whether ACF increases case notification beyond what is reported in the routine passive case finding (PCF). In Cambodia, National TB Control Programme has conducted nationwide ACF with Xpert MTB/RIF that retrospectively targeted household and neighbourhood contacts alongside ro...

Diagnostic Value of Symptom Screening for Pulmonary Tuberculosis in China

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127725
Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of symptom screening for tuberculosis (TB) case finding defined in National Tuberculosis Control Program in China (China NTP) among elderly people(≥65 years) and younger people(<65 years). Methods: We made a secondary analysis in a population-based TB prevalence survey in China in 2010. Questionnaire including information for cough and haemoptysis was completed by face to face interview, and then chest radiography was conducted in all eligi...

Matrixlysis, an improved sample preparation method for recovery of Mycobacteria from animal tissue material

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0181157
Mycobacterium caprae, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, is the main causative agent of bovine tuberculosis in alpine regions. Bacterial culture is the gold standard in bovine tuberculosis diagnostic but takes up to twelve weeks. This increases the time and costs for stocks affected with bovine tuberculosis. Hence this study focused on the implementation of a fast and precise mycobacterial detection method and compared it with currently used methods. Matrix lysis is a...

The High Burden of Tuberculosis (TB) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in a Large Zambian Prison: A Public Health Alert

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067338
Background: Tuberculosis (TB) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) represent two of the greatest health threats in African prisons. In 2010, collaboration between the Centre for Infectious Disease Research in Zambia, the Zambia Prisons Service, and the National TB Program established a TB and HIV screening program in six Zambian prisons. We report data on the prevalence of TB and HIV in one of the largest facilities: Lusaka Central Prison. Methods: Between November 2010 and April 201...

Assessments of Thioridazine as a Helper Compound to Dicloxacillin against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus: In Vivo Trials in a Mouse Peritonitis Model

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0135571
Introduction: The rise in antimicrobial resistance is a major global concern and requires new treatment strategies. The use of helper compounds, such as thioridazine (TDZ), an antipsychotic drug, in combination with traditional antibiotics must be investigated. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of TDZ as a helper compound for dicloxacillin (DCX) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vivo, and compare the combination treatment of D...

Enhancing TB Case Detection: Experience in Offering Upfront Xpert MTB/RIF Testing to Pediatric Presumptive TB and DR TB Cases for Early Rapid Diagnosis of Drug Sensitive and Drug Resistant TB

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105346
Background: Diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in children is challenging due to difficulties in obtaining good quality sputum specimens as well as the paucibacillary nature of disease. Globally a large proportion of pediatric tuberculosis (TB) cases are diagnosed based only on clinical findings. Xpert MTB/RIF, a highly sensitive and specific rapid tool, offers a promising solution in addressing these challenges. This study presents the results from pediatric groups taking part ...

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