Search Results: calculus

Dental Calculus Stimulates Interleukin-1β Secretion by Activating NLRP3 Inflammasome in Human and Mouse Phagocytes

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162865
Dental calculus is a mineralized deposit associated with periodontitis. The bacterial components contained in dental calculus can be recognized by host immune sensors, such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), and induce transcription of proinflammatory cytokines, such as IL-1β. Studies have shown that cellular uptake of crystalline particles may trigger NLRP3 inflammasome activation, leading to the cleavage of the IL-1β precursor to its mature form. Phagocytosis of dental calculus in the...

Women 1.5 Times More Likely to Leave STEM Pipeline after Calculus Compared to Men: Lack of Mathematical Confidence a Potential Culprit

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157447
The substantial gender gap in the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) workforce can be traced back to the underrepresentation of women at various milestones in the career pathway. Calculus is a necessary step in this pathway and has been shown to often dissuade people from pursuing STEM fields. We examine the characteristics of students who begin college interested in STEM and either persist or switch out of the calculus sequence after taking Calculus I, and hence...

Dental Calculus Links Statistically to Angina Pectoris: 26-Year Observational Study

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157797
Objectives: Dental infections, such as periodontitis, associate with atherosclerosis and its complications. We studied a cohort followed-up since 1985 for incidence of angina pectoris with the hypothesis that calculus accumulation, proxy for poor oral hygiene, links to this symptom. Methods: In our Swedish prospective cohort study of 1676 randomly selected subjects followed-up for 26 years. In 1985 all subjects underwent clinical oral examination and answered a questionnaire assessing ...

Lunar Phases and Emergency Department Visits for Renal Colic Due to Ureteral Calculus

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0157589
Background: Urolithiasis affects an estimated 5% of the population and the lifetime risk of passing a stone in the urinary tract is estimated to be 8–10%. Urinary calculus formation is highly variable and while certain risk factors such as age, gender, seasonality, anatomic abnormality, and metabolic diseases have been identified, not much is known regarding the association of environmental factors such as lunar phases on renal colic. We conducted a retrospective study to test the hy...

Fractional Calculus Model of Electrical Impedance Applied to Human Skin

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0059483
Fractional calculus is a mathematical approach dealing with derivatives and integrals of arbitrary and complex orders. Therefore, it adds a new dimension to understand and describe basic nature and behavior of complex systems in an improved way. Here we use the fractional calculus for modeling electrical properties of biological systems. We derived a new class of generalized models for electrical impedance and applied them to human skin by experimental data fitting. The primary model ...

Association between Prostate Cancer and Urinary Calculi: A Population-Based Study

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0057743
Background: Understanding the reasons underlying the emerging trend and the changing demographics of Asian prostate cancer (PC) has become an important field of study. This study set out to explore the possibility that urinary calculi (UC) and PC may share an association by conducting a case-control study on a population-based database in Taiwan. Methods: The cases of this study included 2,900 subjects ≥ 40 years-old who had received their first-time diagnosis of PC and 14,500 random...

Dental Calculus Reveals Unique Insights into Food Items, Cooking and Plant Processing in Prehistoric Central Sudan

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100808
Accessing information on plant consumption before the adoption of agriculture is challenging. However, there is growing evidence for use of locally available wild plants from an increasing number of pre-agrarian sites, suggesting broad ecological knowledge. The extraction of chemical compounds and microfossils from dental calculus removed from ancient teeth offers an entirely new perspective on dietary reconstruction, as it provides empirical results on material that is already in the...

Microbotanical Evidence of Domestic Cereals in Africa 7000 Years Ago

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0110177
The study of plant exploitation and early use of cereals in Africa has seen over the years a great input from charred and desiccated macrobotanical remains. This paper presents the results of one of the few examples in Africa of microbotanical analyses. Three grave contexts of phytolith-rich deposits and the dental calculus of 20 individuals were analysed from two Neolithic cemeteries in North and Central Sudan. The radiocarbon-dated phytoliths from the burial samples show the presenc...

Optimal Stimulus Shapes for Neuronal Excitation

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002089
An important problem in neuronal computation is to discern how features of stimuli control the timing of action potentials. One aspect of this problem is to determine how an action potential, or spike, can be elicited with the least energy cost, e.g., a minimal amount of applied current. Here we show in the Hodgkin & Huxley model of the action potential and in experiments on squid giant axons that: 1) spike generation in a neuron can be highly discriminatory for stimulus shape...

A Computational Approach to the Functional Screening of Genomes

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.0030174
Comparative genomics usually involves managing the functional aspects of genomes, by simply comparing gene-by-gene functions. Following this approach, Mushegian and Koonin proposed a hypothetical minimal genome, Minimal Gene Set (MGS), aiming for a possible oldest ancestor genome. They obtained MGS by comparing the genomes of two simple bacteria and eliminating duplicated or functionally identical genes. The authors raised the fundamental question of whether a hypothetical organism pos...

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