Search Results: geography

Correction: Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention in Malawi: Modeling the Impact and Cost of Focusing the Program by Client Age and Geography

Correction: Voluntary Medical Male Circumcision for HIV Prevention: New Mathematical Models for Strategic Demand Creation Prioritizing Subpopulations by Age and Geography

Correction: A Burgeoning Crisis? A Nationwide Assessment of the Geography of Water Affordability in the United States

Correction: The Human Footprint in Mexico: Physical Geography and Historical Legacies

Global Profiling of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes in Human Gut Microbiome
Motivation: Carbohydrate Active enzyme (CAZyme) families, encoded by human gut microflora, play a crucial role in breakdown of complex dietary carbohydrates into components that can be absorbed by our intestinal epithelium. Since nutritional wellbeing of an individual is dependent on the nutrient harvesting capability of the gut microbiome, it is important to understand how CAZyme repertoire in the gut is influenced by factors like age, geography and food habits. Results: This study re...

An Economic Geography of the United States: From Commutes to Megaregions
The emergence in the United States of large-scale “megaregions” centered on major metropolitan areas is a phenomenon often taken for granted in both scholarly studies and popular accounts of contemporary economic geography. This paper uses a data set of more than 4,000,000 commuter flows as the basis for an empirical approach to the identification of such megaregions. We compare a method which uses a visual heuristic for understanding areal aggregation to a method which uses a com...

The Role of Geography in the Assessment of Quality: Evidence from the Medicare Advantage Program
The Affordable Care Act set in motion a renewed emphasis on quality of care evaluation. However, the evaluation strategies of quality by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services do not consider geography when comparisons are made among plans. Using an overall measure of a plan’s quality in the public sector—the Medicare Advantage (MA) star ratings—we explored the impact of geography in these ratings. We identified 2,872 U.S counties in 2010. The geographic factor predicted...

Lost Letter Measure of Variation in Altruistic Behaviour in 20 Neighbourhoods
Altruistic behaviour varies across human populations and this variation is likely to be partly explained by variation in the ecological context of the populations. We hypothesise that area level socio-economic characteristics will determine the levels of altruism found in individuals living in an area and we use a lost letter experiment to measure altruism across 20 neighbourhoods with a wide range of income deprivation scores in London, UK. The results show a strong negative ...

A Quantitative Comparison of the Similarity between Genes and Geography in Worldwide Human Populations
Multivariate statistical techniques such as principal components analysis (PCA) and multidimensional scaling (MDS) have been widely used to summarize the structure of human genetic variation, often in easily visualized two-dimensional maps. Many recent studies have reported similarity between geographic maps of population locations and MDS or PCA maps of genetic variation inferred from single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). However, this similarity has been evident primarily ...

Revisiting the effect of colonial institutions on comparative economic development
European settler mortality has been proposed as an instrument to predict the causal effect of colonial institutions on differences in economic development. We examine the relationship between mortality, temperature, and economic development in former European colonies in Asia, Africa, and the Americas. We find that (i) European settler mortality rates increased with regional temperatures and (ii) economic output decreased with regional temperatures. Conditioning on the continent of se...

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