Search Results: inorganic chemistry

Inorganic Nitrogen Leaching from Organic and Conventional Rice Production on a Newly Claimed Calciustoll in Central Asia

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0098138
Characterizing the dynamics of nitrogen (N) leaching from organic and conventional paddy fields is necessary to optimize fertilization and to evaluate the impact of these contrasting farming systems on water bodies. We assessed N leaching in organic versus conventional rice production systems of the Ili River Valley, a representative aquatic ecosystem of Central Asia. The N leaching and overall performance of these systems were measured during 2009, using a randomized block experiment...

Inorganic Nitrogen Derived from Foraging Honey Bees Could Have Adaptive Benefits for the Plants They Visit

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0070591
In most terrestrial ecosystems, nitrogen (N) is the most limiting nutrient for plant growth. Honey bees may help alleviate this limitation because their feces (frass) have high concentration of organic nitrogen that may decompose in soil and provide inorganic N to plants. However, information on soil N processes associated with bee frass is not available. The objectives of this work were to 1) estimate the amount of bee frass produced by a honey bee colony and 2) evaluate nitrogen min...

Synthesis of Silver Embedded Poly(o-Anisidine) Molybdophosphate Nano Hybrid Cation-Exchanger Applicable for Membrane Electrode

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096897
Poly(o-anisidine) molybdophosphate was expediently obtained by sol-gel mixing of Poly(o-anisidine) into the inorganic matrices of molybdophosphate, which was allowed to react with silver nitrate to the formation of poly(o-anisidine) molybdophosphate embedded silver nano composite. The composite was characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-ray powder diffraction, UV-Vis Spectrophotometry, Fluorescence Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy/Energy-dispersive X-ray...

Seasonal and Spatial Variations of Bulk Nitrogen Deposition and the Impacts on the Carbon Cycle in the Arid/Semiarid Grassland of Inner Mongolia, China

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144689
Atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition is an important component that affects the structure and function of different terrestrial ecosystem worldwide. However, much uncertainty still remains concerning the magnitude of N deposition on grassland ecosystem in China. To study the spatial and temporal patterns of bulk N deposition, the levels of N (NH4+-N and NO3--N) concentration in rainfall were measured at 12 sites across a 1200 km grassland transect in Inner Mongolia, China, and the resp...

Methylation of Mercury in Earthworms and the Effect of Mercury on the Associated Bacterial Communities

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061215
Methylmercury compounds are very toxic for most organisms. Here, we investigated the potential of earthworms to methylate inorganic-Hg. We hypothesized that the anaerobic and nutrient-rich conditions in the digestive tracts of earthworm's promote the methylation of Hg through the action of their gut bacteria. Earthworms were either grown in sterile soils treated with an inorganic (HgCl2) or organic (CH3HgCl) Hg source, or were left untreated. After 30 days of incubation, the t...

Rising CO2 Levels Will Intensify Phytoplankton Blooms in Eutrophic and Hypertrophic Lakes

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0104325
Harmful algal blooms threaten the water quality of many eutrophic and hypertrophic lakes and cause severe ecological and economic damage worldwide. Dense blooms often deplete the dissolved CO2 concentration and raise pH. Yet, quantitative prediction of the feedbacks between phytoplankton growth, CO2 drawdown and the inorganic carbon chemistry of aquatic ecosystems has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we develop a mathematical model to predict dynamic changes in dissolved ...

Total Water, Phosphorus Relaxation and Inter-Atomic Organic to Inorganic Interface Are New Determinants of Trabecular Bone Integrity

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0083478
Bone is the living composite biomaterial having unique structural property. Presently, there is a considerable gap in our understanding of bone structure and composition in the native state, particularly with respect to the trabecular bone, which is metabolically more active than cortical bones, and is readily lost in post-menopausal osteoporosis. We used solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to compare trabecular bone structure and composition in the native state between norma...

Inorganic Nitrogen Supply and Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Abundance across the US Great Plains

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0107775
Across US Great Plains grasslands, a gradient of increasing mean annual precipitation from west to east corresponds to increasing aboveground net primary productivity (ANPP) and increasing N-limitation. Previous work has shown that there is no increase in net N mineralization rates across this gradient, leading to the question of where eastern prairie grasses obtain the nitrogen to support production. One as-yet unexamined source is soil organic N, despite abundant literature from oth...

Hard and Transparent Films Formed by Nanocellulose–TiO2 Nanoparticle Hybrids

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0045828
The formation of hybrids of nanofibrillated cellulose and titania nanoparticles in aqueous media has been studied. Their transparency and mechanical behavior have been assessed by spectrophotometry and nanoindentation. The results show that limiting the titania nanoparticle concentration below 16 vol% yields homogeneous hybrids with a very high Young’s modulus and hardness, of up to 44 GPa and 3.4 GPa, respectively, and an optical transmittance above 80%. Electron microscopy...

Escherichia coli DnaE Polymerase Couples Pyrophosphatase Activity to DNA Replication

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0152915
DNA Polymerases generate pyrophosphate every time they catalyze a step of DNA elongation. This elongation reaction is generally believed as thermodynamically favoured by the hydrolysis of pyrophosphate, catalyzed by inorganic pyrophosphatases. However, the specific action of inorganic pyrophosphatases coupled to DNA replication in vivo was never demonstrated. Here we show that the Polymerase-Histidinol-Phosphatase (PHP) domain of Escherichia coli DNA Polymerase III α subunit features...

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