Search Results: metallurgy

Correction: The Beginning of Metallurgy in the Southern Levant: A Late 6th Millennium CalBC Copper Awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096882

The Beginning of Metallurgy in the Southern Levant: A Late 6th Millennium CalBC Copper Awl from Tel Tsaf, Israel

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0092591
The beginning of metallurgy in the ancient Near East attracts much attention. The southern Levant, with the rich assemblage of copper artifacts from the Nahal Mishmar cave and the unique gold rings of the Nahal Qanah cave, is regarded as a main center of early metallurgy during the second half of the 5th millennium CalBC. However, a recently discovered copper awl from a Middle Chalcolithic burial at Tel Tsaf, Jordan Valley, Israel, suggests that cast metal technology was introduced to...

The Earliest Lead Object in the Levant

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142948
In the deepest section of a large complex cave in the northern Negev desert, Israel, a bi-conical lead object was found logged onto a wooden shaft. Associated material remains and radiocarbon dating of the shaft place the object within the Late Chalcolithic period, at the late 5th millennium BCE. Based on chemical and lead isotope analysis, we show that this unique object was made of almost pure metallic lead, likely smelted from lead ores originating in the Taurus range in Anatolia. ...

In Vitro Electrochemical Corrosion and Cell Viability Studies on Nickel-Free Stainless Steel Orthopedic Implants

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0061633
The corrosion and cell viability behaviors of nanostructured, nickel-free stainless steel implants were studied and compared with AISI 316L. The electrochemical studies were conducted by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopic measurements in a simulated body fluid. Cytocompatibility was also evaluated by the adhesion behavior of adult human stem cells on the surface of the samples. According to the results, the electrochemical behavior is affected by ...

Emissions from Pre-Hispanic Metallurgy in the South American Atmosphere

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0111315
Metallurgical activities have been undertaken in northern South America (NSA) for millennia. However, it is still unknown how far atmospheric emissions from these activities have been transported. Since the timing of metallurgical activities is currently estimated from scarce archaeological discoveries, the availability of reliable and continuous records to refine the timing of past metal deposition in South America is essential, as it provides an alternative to discontinuous archives...

Long-distance connections in the Copper Age: New evidence from the Alpine Iceman’s copper axe

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0179263
25 years after the discovery in the Ötztal Italian Alps, the 5,300-year-old mummy keeps providing key information on human biological and medical conditions, aspects of everyday life and societal organization in the Copper Age. The hand axe found with the body of the Alpine Iceman is one of the rare copper objects that is firmly dated to the early Copper Age because of the radiocarbon dating of the axe wooden shaft. Here we report the measurement of the lead isotope ratios of the cop...

On Intensive Late Holocene Iron Mining and Production in the Northern Congo Basin and the Environmental Consequences Associated with Metallurgy in Central Africa

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0132632
An ongoing question in paleoenvironmental reconstructions of the central African rainforest concerns the role that prehistoric metallurgy played in shaping forest vegetation. Here we report evidence of intensive iron-ore mining and smelting in forested regions of the northern Congo Basin dating to the late Holocene. Volumetric estimates on extracted iron-ore and associated slag mounds from prehistoric sites in the southern Central African Republic suggest large-scale iron production o...

Divergence in Male and Female Manipulative Behaviors with the Intensification of Metallurgy in Central Europe

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0112116
Humeral morphology has been shown to reflect, in part, habitual manipulative behaviors in humans. Among Central European agricultural populations, long-term social change, increasing task specialization, and technological innovation all had the potential to impact patterns of habitual activity and upper limb asymmetry. However, systematic temporal change in the skeletal morphology of agricultural populations in this region has not been well-characterized. This study investigates diach...

A New Chronology for the Bronze Age of Northeastern Thailand and Its Implications for Southeast Asian Prehistory

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0137542
There are two models for the origins and timing of the Bronze Age in Southeast Asia. The first centres on the sites of Ban Chiang and Non Nok Tha in Northeast Thailand. It places the first evidence for bronze technology in about 2000 B.C., and identifies the origin by means of direct contact with specialists of the Seima Turbino metallurgical tradition of Central Eurasia. The second is based on the site of Ban Non Wat, 280 km southwest of Ban Chiang, where extensive radiocarbon dating...

Introducing Open Highlights: Highlighting Open Access Research from PLOS and Beyond

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1002514
PLOS Biology announces a new article type, Open Highlights, which uses a recent research article to nucleate a short synthesis of up to ten related research articles from other PLOS journals and from the wider Open Access corpus.

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