Search Results: particle

Saltation of Non-Spherical Sand Particles

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0105208
Saltation is an important geological process and the primary source of atmospheric mineral dust aerosols. Unfortunately, no studies to date have been able to precisely reproduce the saltation process because of the simplified theoretical models used. For example, sand particles in most of the existing wind sand movement models are considered to be spherical, the effects of the sand shape on the structure of the wind sand flow are rarely studied, and the effect of mid-air collision is ...

Evaluation of Microflow Digital Imaging Particle Analysis for Sub-Visible Particles Formulated with an Opaque Vaccine Adjuvant

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150229
Microflow digital imaging (MDI) has become a widely accepted method for assessing sub-visible particles in pharmaceutical formulations however, to date; no data have been presented on the utility of this methodology when formulations include opaque vaccine adjuvants. This study evaluates the ability of MDI to assess sub-visible particles under these conditions. A Fluid Imaging Technologies Inc. FlowCAM® instrument was used to assess a number of sub-visible particle types in solution ...

Encouragement of Enzyme Reaction Utilizing Heat Generation from Ferromagnetic Particles Subjected to an AC Magnetic Field

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0127673
We propose a method of activating an enzyme utilizing heat generation from ferromagnetic particles under an ac magnetic field. We immobilize α-amylase on the surface of ferromagnetic particles and analyze its activity. We find that when α-amylase/ferromagnetic particle hybrids, that is, ferromagnetic particles, on which α-amylase molecules are immobilized, are subjected to an ac magnetic field, the particles generate heat and as a result, α-amylase on the particles is heated up an...

Fetuin-A and Albumin Alter Cytotoxic Effects of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles on Human Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097565
Calcification is a detrimental process in vascular ageing and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and arthritis. In particular, small calcium phosphate (CaP) crystal deposits are associated with inflammation and atherosclerotic plaque de-stabilisation. We previously reported that CaP particles caused human vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) death and that serum reduced the toxic effects of the particles. Here, we found that the serum proteins fetuin-A and albumin (≥1 µM) reduced in...

High-Throughput Top-Down Fabrication of Uniform Magnetic Particles

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037440
Ion Beam Aperture Array Lithography was applied to top-down fabrication of large dense (108–109 particles/cm2) arrays of uniform micron-scale particles at rates hundreds of times faster than electron beam lithography. In this process, a large array of helium ion beamlets is formed when a stencil mask containing an array of circular openings is illuminated by a broad beam of energetic (5–8 keV) ions, and is used to write arrays of specific repetitive patterns. A commercial ...

Correction: Decomposition of Organic Carbon in Fine Soil Particles Is Likely More Sensitive to Warming than in Coarse Particles: An Incubation Study with Temperate Grassland and Forest Soils in Northern China

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0103801

Flow Scales of Influence on the Settling Velocities of Particles with Varying Characteristics

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159645
The settling velocities of natural, synthetic, and industrial particles were measured in a grid turbulence facility using optical measurement techniques. Particle image velocimetry and 2D particle tracking were used to measure the instantaneous velocities of the flow and the particles’ trajectories simultaneously. We find that for particles examined in this study (Rep = 0.4–123), settling velocity is either enhanced or unchanged relative to stagnant flow for the range of investiga...

Ocean Wave Simulation Based on Wind Field

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0147123
Ocean wave simulation has a wide range of applications in movies, video games and training systems. Wind force is the main energy resource for generating ocean waves, which are the result of the interaction between wind and the ocean surface. While numerous methods to handle simulating oceans and other fluid phenomena have undergone rapid development during the past years in the field of computer graphic, few of them consider to construct ocean surface height field from the perspectiv...

Analysis of the Murine Immune Response to Pulmonary Delivery of Precisely Fabricated Nano- and Microscale Particles

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0062115
Nanomedicine has the potential to transform clinical care in the 21st century. However, a precise understanding of how nanomaterial design parameters such as size, shape and composition affect the mammalian immune system is a prerequisite for the realization of nanomedicine's translational promise. Herein, we make use of the recently developed Particle Replication in Non-wetting Template (PRINT) fabrication process to precisely fabricate particles across and the nano- and micr...

Lipoprotein Particle Profiles Mark Familial and Sporadic Human Longevity

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030495
Background: Genetic and biochemical studies have indicated an important role for lipid metabolism in human longevity. Ashkenazi Jewish centenarians and their offspring have large low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles as compared with control individuals. This profile also coincided with a lower prevalence of disease. Here, we investigate whether this observation can be confirmed for familial longevity in an outbred European population and whether it...

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