Search Results: petroleum

Understanding Plant-Microbe Interactions for Phytoremediation of Petroleum-Polluted Soil

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0017961
Plant-microbe interactions are considered to be important processes determining the efficiency of phytoremediation of petroleum pollution, however relatively little is known about how these interactions are influenced by petroleum pollution. In this experimental study using a microcosm approach, we examined how plant ecophysiological traits, soil nutrients and microbial activities were ...

Specialized Hydrocarbonoclastic Bacteria Prevailing in Seawater around a Port in the Strait of Malacca

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0066594
Major degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons in tropical seas have been indicated only by laboratory culturing and never through observing the bacterial community structure in actual environments. To demonstrate the major degraders of petroleum hydrocarbons spilt in actual tropical seas, indigenous bacterial community in seawater at Sentosa (close to a port) and East Coast Park (far from a port) in Singapore was analyzed. Bacterial species was more diverse at Sentosa than at the Park, an...

Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0023258
Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected f...

Energy Potential and Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Bioenergy Cropping Systems on Marginally Productive Cropland

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0089501
Low-carbon biofuel sources are being developed and evaluated in the United States and Europe to partially offset petroleum transport fuels. Current and potential biofuel production systems were evaluated from a long-term continuous no-tillage corn (Zea mays L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) field trial under differing harvest strategies and nitrogen (N) fertilizer intensities to determine overall environmental sustainability. Corn and switchgrass grown for bioenergy resulted i...

A Prediction Model of the Capillary Pressure J-Function

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0162123
The capillary pressure J-function is a dimensionless measure of the capillary pressure of a fluid in a porous medium. The function was derived based on a capillary bundle model. However, the dependence of the J-function on the saturation Sw is not well understood. A prediction model for it is presented based on capillary pressure model, and the J-function prediction model is a power function instead of an exponential or polynomial function. Relative permeability is calculated with the...

Plant Family-Specific Impacts of Petroleum Pollution on Biodiversity and Leaf Chlorophyll Content in the Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0169867
In recent decades petroleum pollution in the tropical rainforest has caused significant environmental damage in vast areas of the Amazon region. At present the extent of this damage is not entirely clear. Little is known about the specific impacts of petroleum pollution on tropical vegetation. In a field expedition to the Ecuadorian Amazon over 1100 leaf samples were collected from tropical trees in polluted and unpolluted sites. Plant families were identified for 739 of the leaf samp...

The Influence of Casing-Sand Adhesion on Cementing Bond Strength

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0130892
In the petroleum industry, one of the most serious problems encountered during cementing is the failure at the bonding interface. Many measures including casing-sand adhesion have been developed to improve cementing bond strength. However, due to the lack of detailed study of the technique, many questions remain. The primary goal of this study is to investigate the influence of casing-sand adhesion on cementing bond strength, and to optimize parameters. An orthogonal experiment and a ...

Effects of Crude Oil Exposure on Bioaccumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Survival of Adult and Larval Stages of Gelatinous Zooplankton

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074476
Gelatinous zooplankton play an important role in marine food webs both as major consumers of metazooplankton and as prey of apex predators (e.g., tuna, sunfish, sea turtles). However, little is known about the effects of crude oil spills on these important components of planktonic communities. We determined the effects of Louisiana light sweet crude oil exposure on survival and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in adult stages of the scyphozoans Pelagia noctil...

Estimating decades-long trends in petroleum field energy return on investment (EROI) with an engineering-based model

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0171083
This paper estimates changes in the energy return on investment (EROI) for five large petroleum fields over time using the Oil Production Greenhouse Gas Emissions Estimator (OPGEE). The modeled fields include Cantarell (Mexico), Forties (U.K.), Midway-Sunset (U.S.), Prudhoe Bay (U.S.), and Wilmington (U.S.). Data on field properties and production/processing parameters were obtained from a combination of government and technical literature sources. Key areas of uncertainty include det...

Probing the Carbonyl Functionality of a Petroleum Resin and Asphaltene through Oximation and Schiff Base Formation in Conjunction with N-15 NMR

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0142452
Despite recent advances in spectroscopic techniques, there is uncertainty regarding the nature of the carbonyl groups in the asphaltene and resin fractions of crude oil, information necessary for an understanding of the physical properties and environmental fate of these materials. Carbonyl and hydroxyl group functionalities are not observed in natural abundance 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of asphaltenes and resins and therefore require spin labeling techniques for de...

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