Search Results: plastics

Marine Plastic Pollution in Waters around Australia: Characteristics, Concentrations, and Pathways

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0080466
Plastics represent the vast majority of human-made debris present in the oceans. However, their characteristics, accumulation zones, and transport pathways remain poorly assessed. We characterised and estimated the concentration of marine plastics in waters around Australia using surface net tows, and inferred their potential pathways using particle-tracking models and real drifter trajectories. The 839 marine plastics recorded were predominantly small fragments (“microplastics”, ...

Genetic Basis and Selection for Life-History Trait Plasticity on Alternative Host Plants for the Cereal Aphid Sitobion avenae

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106179
Sitobion avenae (F.) can survive on various plants in the Poaceae, which may select for highly plastic genotypes. But phenotypic plasticity was often thought to be non-genetic, and of little evolutionary significance historically, and many problems related to adaptive plasticity, its genetic basis and natural selection for plasticity have not been well documented. To address these questions, clones of S. avenae were collected from three plants, and their phenotypic plasticity under al...

Millimeter-Sized Marine Plastics: A New Pelagic Habitat for Microorganisms and Invertebrates

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100289
Millimeter-sized plastics are abundant in most marine surface waters, and known to carry fouling organisms that potentially play key roles in the fate and ecological impacts of plastic pollution. In this study we used scanning electron microscopy to characterize biodiversity of organisms on the surface of 68 small floating plastics (length range = 1.7–24.3 mm, median = 3.2 mm) from Australia-wide coastal and oceanic, tropical to temperate sample collections. Diatoms were the...

A Calcium-Dependent Plasticity Rule for HCN Channels Maintains Activity Homeostasis and Stable Synaptic Learning

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0055590
Theoretical and computational frameworks for synaptic plasticity and learning have a long and cherished history, with few parallels within the well-established literature for plasticity of voltage-gated ion channels. In this study, we derive rules for plasticity in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels, and assess the synergy between synaptic and HCN channel plasticity in establishing stability during synaptic learning. To do this, we employ a ...

Analysis of Transformation Plasticity in Steel Using a Finite Element Method Coupled with a Phase Field Model

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0035987
An implicit finite element model was developed to analyze the deformation behavior of low carbon steel during phase transformation. The finite element model was coupled hierarchically with a phase field model that could simulate the kinetics and micro-structural evolution during the austenite-to-ferrite transformation of low carbon steel. Thermo-elastic-plastic constitutive equations for each phase were adopted to confirm the transformation plasticity due to the weaker phase y...

Conflict between Noise and Plasticity in Yeast

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pgen.1001185
Gene expression responds to changes in conditions but also stochastically among individuals. In budding yeast, both expression responsiveness across conditions (“plasticity”) and cell-to-cell variation (“noise”) have been quantified for thousands of genes and found to correlate across genes. It has been argued therefore that noise and plasticity may be strongly coupled and mechanistically linked. This is consistent with some theoretical ideas, but a strong coupling between noi...

Correction: Muscarinic and Nicotinic Modulation of Thalamo-Prefrontal Cortex Synaptic Plasticity In Vivo

dx.plos.org/10.1371/annotation/d2dbf233-db12-431f-b9b6-4bd31cbca23e

Correction: Plasticity of Intermediate Filament Subunits

dx.plos.org/10.1371/annotation/8f182672-e11e-48d5-8a74-c401b8bd5ecc

Long-Term Sorption of Metals Is Similar among Plastic Types: Implications for Plastic Debris in Aquatic Environments

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085433
Concerns regarding plastic debris and its ability to accumulate large concentrations of priority pollutants in the aquatic environment led us to quantify relationships between different types of mass-produced plastic and metals in seawater. At three locations in San Diego Bay, we measured the accumulation of nine targeted metals (aluminum, chromium, manganese, iron, cobalt, nickel, zinc, cadmium and lead) sampling at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, to five plastic types: polyethylene tereph...

Soft-bound Synaptic Plasticity Increases Storage Capacity

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pcbi.1002836
Accurate models of synaptic plasticity are essential to understand the adaptive properties of the nervous system and for realistic models of learning and memory. Experiments have shown that synaptic plasticity depends not only on pre- and post-synaptic activity patterns, but also on the strength of the connection itself. Namely, weaker synapses are more easily strengthened than already strong ones. This so called soft-bound plasticity automatically constrains the synaptic stre...