Search Results: seismology

Relationship between the Frequency Magnitude Distribution and the Visibility Graph in the Synthetic Seismicity Generated by a Simple Stick-Slip System with Asperities

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106233
By using the method of the visibility graph (VG) the synthetic seismicity generated by a simple stick–slip system with asperities is analysed. The stick–slip system mimics the interaction between tectonic plates, whose asperities are given by sandpapers of different granularity degrees. The VG properties of the seismic sequences have been put in relationship with the typical seismological parameter, the b-value of the Gutenberg-Richter law. Between the b-value of the synthetic sei...

Natural disasters and indicators of social cohesion

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0176885
Do adversarial environmental conditions create social cohesion? We provide new answers to this question by exploiting spatial and temporal variation in exposure to earthquakes across Chile. Using a variety of methods and controlling for a number of socio-economic variables, we find that exposure to earthquakes has a positive effect on several indicators of social cohesion. Social cohesion increases after a big earthquake and slowly erodes in periods where environmental conditions are ...

Structural Changes in Molluscan Community over a 15-Year Period before and after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Subsequent Tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, Northeastern Japan

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0168206
We examined structural changes in the molluscan community for ten years (2001–2010) before and five years (2011–2015) after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent tsunami around Matsushima Bay, Miyagi Prefecture, northeastern Japan. Before the earthquake and tsunami, Ruditapes philippinarum, Macoma incongrua, Pillucina pisidium, and Batillaria cumingii were dominant, and an alien predator Laguncula pulchella appeared in 2002 and increased in number. After the tsunami,...

Frequency Spectrum Method-Based Stress Analysis for Oil Pipelines in Earthquake Disaster Areas

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115299
When a long distance oil pipeline crosses an earthquake disaster area, inertial force and strong ground motion can cause the pipeline stress to exceed the failure limit, resulting in bending and deformation failure. To date, researchers have performed limited safety analyses of oil pipelines in earthquake disaster areas that include stress analysis. Therefore, using the spectrum method and theory of one-dimensional beam units, CAESAR II is used to perform a dynamic earthquake analysis...

Giant Seismites and Megablock Uplift in the East African Rift: Evidence for Late Pleistocene Large Magnitude Earthquakes

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0129051
In lieu of comprehensive instrumental seismic monitoring, short historical records, and limited fault trench investigations for many seismically active areas, the sedimentary record provides important archives of seismicity in the form of preserved horizons of soft-sediment deformation features, termed seismites. Here we report on extensive seismites in the Late Quaternary-Recent (≤ ~ 28,000 years BP) alluvial and lacustrine strata of the Rukwa Rift Basin, a segment of the Western B...

If We Share Data, Will Anyone Use Them? Data Sharing and Reuse in the Long Tail of Science and Technology

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0067332
Research on practices to share and reuse data will inform the design of infrastructure to support data collection, management, and discovery in the long tail of science and technology. These are research domains in which data tend to be local in character, minimally structured, and minimally documented. We report on a ten-year study of the Center for Embedded Network Sensing (CENS), a National Science Foundation Science and Technology Center. We found that CENS researchers are willing...

Predicting the Maximum Earthquake Magnitude from Seismic Data in Israel and Its Neighboring Countries

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0146101
This paper explores several data mining and time series analysis methods for predicting the magnitude of the largest seismic event in the next year based on the previously recorded seismic events in the same region. The methods are evaluated on a catalog of 9,042 earthquake events, which took place between 01/01/1983 and 31/12/2010 in the area of Israel and its neighboring countries. The data was obtained from the Geophysical Institute of Israel. Each earthquake record in the catalog ...

Pseudo-Spectral Damping Reduction Factors for the Himalayan Region Considering Recorded Ground-Motion Data

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0161137
Ground-motion prediction equations that are used to predict acceleration values are generally developed for a 5% viscous damping ratio. Special structures and structures that use damping devices may have damping ratios other than the conventionally used ratio of 5%. Hence, for such structures, the intensity measures predicted by conventional ground-motion prediction equations need to be converted to a particular level of damping using a damping reduction factor (DRF). DRF is the ratio...

An Integrated and Interdisciplinary Model for Predicting the Risk of Injury and Death in Future Earthquakes

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0151111
Background: A comprehensive technique for earthquake-related casualty estimation remains an unmet challenge. This study aims to integrate risk factors related to characteristics of the exposed population and to the built environment in order to improve communities’ preparedness and response capabilities and to mitigate future consequences. Methods: An innovative model was formulated based on a widely used loss estimation model (HAZUS) by integrating four human-related risk factors (a...

1.8 Billion Years of Detrital Zircon Recycling Calibrates a Refractory Part of Earth’s Sedimentary Cycle

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0144727
Detrital zircon studies are providing new insights on the evolution of sedimentary basins but the role of sedimentary recycling remains largely undefined. In a broad region of northwestern North America, this contribution traces the pathway of detrital zircon sand grains from Proterozoic sandstones through Phanerozoic strata and argues for multi-stage sedimentary recycling over more than a billion years. As a test of our hypothesis, integrated palynology and detrital zircon provenance...

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