Search Results: soil chemistry

Estimating Soil Organic Carbon Stocks and Spatial Patterns with Statistical and GIS-Based Methods

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0097757
Accurately quantifying soil organic carbon (SOC) is considered fundamental to studying soil quality, modeling the global carbon cycle, and assessing global climate change. This study evaluated the uncertainties caused by up-scaling of soil properties from the county scale to the provincial scale and from lower-level classification of Soil Species to Soil Group, using four methods: the mean, median, Soil Profile Statistics (SPS), and pedological professional knowledge based (PKB) metho...

Soil CO2 Dynamics in a Tree Island Soil of the Pantanal: The Role of Soil Water Potential

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0064874
The Pantanal is a biodiversity hotspot comprised of a mosaic of landforms that differ in vegetative assemblages and flooding dynamics. Tree islands provide refuge for terrestrial fauna during the flooding period and are particularly important to the regional ecosystem structure. Little soil CO2 research has been conducted in this region. We evaluated soil CO2 dynamics in relation to primary controlling environmental parameters (soil temperature and soil water). Soil respiration was co...

Variations in Soil Microbial Biomass Carbon and Soil Dissolved Organic Carbon in the Re-Vegetation of Hilly Slopes with Purple Soil

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0166536
Crust restoration is increasingly being done but we lack quantitative information on soil improvements. The study aimed to elucidate the dynamics involving soil microbial biomass carbon and soil dissolved organic carbon in the re-vegetation chronosequences of a hillslope land with purple soil in Hengyang, Hunan Province. The soil can cause serious disasters with both soil erosion and seasonal drought, and also becomes a typical representative of ecological disaster area in South China...

Simulated Nitrogen Deposition Reduces CH4 Uptake and Increases N2O Emission from a Subtropical Plantation Forest Soil in Southern China

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0093571
To date, few studies are conducted to quantify the effects of reduced ammonium (NH4+) and oxidized nitrate (NO3−) on soil CH4 uptake and N2O emission in the subtropical forests. In this study, NH4Cl and NaNO3 fertilizers were applied at three rates: 0, 40 and 120 kg N ha−1 yr−1. Soil CH4 and N2O fluxes were determined twice a week using the static chamber technique and gas chromatography. Soil temperature and moisture were simultaneously measured. Soil dissolved N concentration ...

Effects of Straw Return in Deep Soils with Urea Addition on the Soil Organic Carbon Fractions in a Semi-Arid Temperate Cornfield

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0153214
Returning straw to deep soil layers by using a deep-ditching-ridge-ploughing method is an innovative management practice that improves soil quality by increasing the soil organic carbon (SOC) content. However, the optimum quantity of straw return has not been determined. To solve this practical production problem, the following treatments with different amounts of corn straw were investigated: no straw return, CK; 400 kg ha-1 straw, S400; 800 kg ha-1 straw, S800; 1200 kg ha-1 straw, S...

Effect of Byproducts of Flue Gas Desulfurization on the Soluble Salts Composition and Chemical Properties of Sodic Soils

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0071011
The byproducts of flue gas desulfurization (BFGD) are a useful external source of Ca2+ for the reclamation of sodic soils because they are comparatively cheap, generally available and have high gypsum content. The ion solution composition of sodic soils also plays an important role in the reclamation process. The effect of BFGD on the soluble salts composition and chemical properties of sodic soils were studied in a soil column experiment. The experiment consisted of four treatments u...

Interaction of 8-Hydroxyquinoline with Soil Environment Mediates Its Ecological Function

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0012852
Background: Allelopathic functions of plant-released chemicals are often studied through growth bioassays assuming that these chemicals will directly impact plant growth. This overlooks the role of soil factors in mediating allelopathic activities of chemicals, particularly non-volatiles. Here we examined the allelopathic potential of 8-hydroxyquinoline (HQ), a chemical reported to be exuded from the roots of Centaurea diffusa. Methodology/Principal Findings: Growth bioassays and HQ re...

Biotic and Abiotic Soil Properties Influence Survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Soil

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0075969
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen responsible for the potentially fatal disease listeriosis and terrestrial ecosystems have been hypothesized to be its natural reservoir. Therefore, identifying the key edaphic factors that influence its survival in soil is critical. We measured the survival of L. monocytogenes in a set of 100 soil samples belonging to the French Soil Quality Monitoring Network. This soil collection is meant to be representative of the pedology and land u...

Effects of Manipulated Above- and Belowground Organic Matter Input on Soil Respiration in a Chinese Pine Plantation

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0126337
Alteration in the amount of soil organic matter input can have profound effect on carbon dynamics in forest soils. The objective of our research was to determine the response in soil respiration to above- and belowground organic matter manipulation in a Chinese pine (Pinus tabulaeformis) plantation. Five organic matter treatments were applied during a 2-year experiment: both litter removal and root trenching (LRRT), only litter removal (LR), control (CK), only root trenching (RT) and ...

Derivation of Soil Ecological Criteria for Copper in Chinese Soils

dx.plos.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0133941
Considerable information on copper (Cu) ecotoxicity as affected by biological species and abiotic properties of soils has been collected from the last decade in the present study. The information on bioavailability/ecotoxicity, species sensitivity and differences in laboratory and field ecotoxicity of Cu in different soils was collated and integrated to derive soil ecological criteria for Cu in Chinese soils, which were expressed as predicted no effect concentrations (PNEC). First, al...

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